Download Building on Early Gains in Afghanistan's Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector PDF

Building on Early Gains in Afghanistan's Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector

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Publisher : World Bank Publications
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ISBN 10 : 0821383361
Pages : 224 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (213 downloads)

Download Building on Early Gains in Afghanistan's Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector PDF Full Free by World Bank and published by World Bank Publications. This book was released on 2010-05-19 with total page 224 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This volume is the first of its kind to present a comprehensive assessment of the health sector in Afghanistan. Although health outcomes here are some of the worst in the world, the sector has made considerable progress since 2001. A nationwide survey conducted in late 2006 found that the infant mortality rate had fallen from 165 to 129 per 1,000 live births, and the under-five mortality rate had fallen from 257 to 191 per 1,000 live births. These figures represent a 22 percent and a 26 percent decline, respectively, from the end of 2001. Similarly, coverage of prenatal care has increased from less than 5 percent to 32 percent, and childhood vaccinations of DPT3 (diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus) have increased from less than 20 percent to 35 percent between 2003 and 2006. Administrative data indicate that the number of functioning primary health care facilities has nearly doubled, from 498 in 2001 to more than 936 in 2008. Also, the quality of care in publicly financed facilities has increased by about 22 percent from 2004 to 2006. Although this progress is encouraging, it is not sufficient to ensure that Afghanistan will achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 'Building on Early Gains in Afghanistan s Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector' presents specific policy options for Afghanistan s Ministry of Public Health to consider in advancing to the next level of care for its population. The guiding principles of these options are consistency with the ministry s vision and the feasibility of implementation. The specific challenges include revising the content of the basic package of health services (BPHS), rethinking the delivery of the BPHS, securing sustained and predictable financing, defining the role of the emerging private sector, addressing the shortage of human resources for health, and expanding the capacity of the ministry to enable it to effectively carry out its stewardship functions. This book was prepared as a resource for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in Afghanistan and other conflict-affected countries. It emphasizes the policy implications of the findings presented.


Download EU Development Policy and Poverty Reduction PDF

EU Development Policy and Poverty Reduction

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Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
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ISBN 10 : 9781409498377
Pages : 246 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (983 downloads)

Download EU Development Policy and Poverty Reduction PDF Full Free by Dr Wil Hout and published by Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. This book was released on 2013-03-28 with total page 246 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This inspiring collection analyzes the contribution of EU development policy to poverty reduction. It focuses on various aspects of the policy – trade, agriculture and food security, and modes of policy making and implementation – and covers three geographical areas in relation to Europe – Latin America, Asia and Africa/Middle East. The volume concludes with practical recommendations for improving EU development policy with a view to enhancing its effectiveness.


Download Signification of Planets and their Attributes PDF

Signification of Planets and their Attributes

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Publisher : Saket Shah
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ISBN 10 :
Pages : 143 pages
Rating : 4./5 ( downloads)

Download Signification of Planets and their Attributes PDF Full Free by Saket Shah and published by Saket Shah. This book was released on 2019-10-19 with total page 143 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: With my experience in Astrology I am presenting you an excellent in depth concept of planets and their signification. Here you will understand in depth concept of each planet and how they work with astrology concepts. I have given complete concept of planets and their details it will enhance your knowlege of astrology and will you deep wisdom to do further research on it.


Download Active Media Technology PDF

Active Media Technology

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9783642236204
Pages : 369 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (362 downloads)

Download Active Media Technology PDF Full Free by Ning Zhong and published by Springer. This book was released on 2011-08-19 with total page 369 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Active Media Technology, AMT 2011, held in Lanzhou, China, in September 2011. The 30 revised full papers and 6 keynote talks were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are grouped in topcial sections on data mining and pattern analysis in active media; active human-Web interaction and social media; active Web intelligence applications; active multi-agent and network systems; as well as technology intelligence.


Download ORAL CANCER PDF

ORAL CANCER

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Publisher : Jayasree Saranathan
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ISBN 10 :
Pages : 331 pages
Rating : 4./5 ( downloads)

Download ORAL CANCER PDF Full Free by Dr. Jayasree Saranathan and published by Jayasree Saranathan. This book was released on 2021-07-15 with total page 331 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book serves as a guide in medical astrology not just for the astrologers and astrology enthusiasts, but also for those who have no previous knowledge of astrology. This book is the first of its kind in detecting oral cancer in the horoscope. It also offers techniques of predicting different types of cancer, diseases of the mouth and the face including various kinds of eye problems, speech disorders, cleft palate and five types of non-cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions in the mouth. A section on palm lines related to prediction of diseases is added. More importantly the book offers simple astrological remedial measures, the scientific rationale behind them and the methods to derive remedies from the horoscope. For print copy, write to [email protected]


Download The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual PDF

The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual

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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN 10 : 9781119061175
Pages : 1218 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (611 downloads)

Download The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual PDF Full Free by Marilyn S. Arsham and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2017-03-03 with total page 1218 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Cytogenetics is the study of chromosome morphology, structure, pathology, function, and behavior. The field has evolved to embrace molecular cytogenetic changes, now termed cytogenomics. Cytogeneticists utilize an assortment of procedures to investigate the full complement of chromosomes and/or a targeted region within a specific chromosome in metaphase or interphase. Tools include routine analysis of G-banded chromosomes, specialized stains that address specific chromosomal structures, and molecular probes, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome microarray analysis, which employ a variety of methods to highlight a region as small as a single, specific genetic sequence under investigation. The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual, Fourth Edition offers a comprehensive description of the diagnostic tests offered by the clinical laboratory and explains the science behind them. One of the most valuable assets is its rich compilation of laboratory-tested protocols currently being used in leading laboratories, along with practical advice for nearly every area of interest to cytogeneticists. In addition to covering essential topics that have been the backbone of cytogenetics for over 60 years, such as the basic components of a cell, use of a microscope, human tissue processing for cytogenetic analysis (prenatal, constitutional, and neoplastic), laboratory safety, and the mechanisms behind chromosome rearrangement and aneuploidy, this edition introduces new and expanded chapters by experts in the field. Some of these new topics include a unique collection of chromosome heteromorphisms; clinical examples of genomic imprinting; an example-driven overview of chromosomal microarray; mathematics specifically geared for the cytogeneticist; usage of ISCN’s cytogenetic language to describe chromosome changes; tips for laboratory management; examples of laboratory information systems; a collection of internet and library resources; and a special chapter on animal chromosomes for the research and zoo cytogeneticist. The range of topics is thus broad yet comprehensive, offering the student a resource that teaches the procedures performed in the cytogenetics laboratory environment, and the laboratory professional with a peer-reviewed reference that explores the basis of each of these procedures. This makes it a useful resource for researchers, clinicians, and lab professionals, as well as students in a university or medical school setting.


Download Advanced Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering PDF

Advanced Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9783662474877
Pages : 358 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (748 downloads)

Download Advanced Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering PDF Full Free by James J. (Jong Hyuk) Park and published by Springer. This book was released on 2015-05-26 with total page 358 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This volume brings together contributions representing the state-of-the-art in new multimedia and future technology information research, currently a major topic in computer science and electronic engineering. Researchers aim to interoperate multimedia frameworks, transforming the way people work and interact with multimedia data. This book covers future information technology topics including digital and multimedia convergence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, intelligent computing and applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, human-centric computing and social networks, adaptive and context-aware computing, security and trust computing and related areas. Representing the combined proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE-15) and the 10th International Conference on Future Information Technology (Future Tech 2015), this book aims to provide a complete coverage of the areas outlined and to bring together researchers from academic and industry and other practitioners to share their research ideas, challenges and solutions.


Download Malnutrition in Afghanistan PDF

Malnutrition in Afghanistan

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Publisher : World Bank Publications
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ISBN 10 : 9780821384428
Pages : 236 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (844 downloads)

Download Malnutrition in Afghanistan PDF Full Free by Emily Levitt and published by World Bank Publications. This book was released on 2010-11-10 with total page 236 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: South Asia has the highest rates of malnutrition and the largest number of malnourished women and children in the world. Childhood malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality one-third of all child deaths are due to the underlying cause of malnutrition. For the children who survive, malnutrition results in lifelong problems by severely reducing a child s ability to learn and to grow to his or her full potential. Malnutrition directly leads to less productive adults and thus to weaker national economic performance. The negative impact of malnutrition on a society s productivity and a nation s long-term development is difficult to underestimate. Malnutrition is a key development priority for the World Bank s South Asia region. The Bank intends to increase its commitment to reducing malnutrition in the region. As a first step, Bank staff are preparing a series of country assessments such as Malnutrition in Afghanistan. These assessments will be useful for governments and development partners committed to scaling up effective, evidence-based interventions to reduce malnutrition in their countries. Conclusive evidence shows that a multisectoral planning approach, followed by actions in the various sectors, is the most successful method to improve a populations nutrition. Malnutrition in Afghanistan provides the background analysis for the development of a comprehensive nutrition action plan. The timing of this report is propitious. The international communities interest in the developmental benefits of nutrition programming is high. This analytical report is part of a broader effort by the World Bank South Asia region to increase investments in nutrition, recognizing that good nutrition is important to economic growth and development, and because investing in well-proven nutrition interventions pays high dividends in poverty reduction and national economic development.


Download Nature of Computation and Communication PDF

Nature of Computation and Communication

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9783319469096
Pages : 410 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (69 downloads)

Download Nature of Computation and Communication PDF Full Free by Phan Cong Vinh and published by Springer. This book was released on 2016-10-25 with total page 410 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book constitutes the post-conference proceedings of the Second International Conference on Nature of Computation and Communication, ICTCC 2016, held in March 2016 in Rach Gia, Vietnam. The 36 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from over 100 submissions. The papers cover formal methods for self-adaptive systems and discuss natural approaches and techniques for computation and communication.


Download Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Insect Development, Reproduction, and Phenotypic Plasticity PDF

Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Insect Development, Reproduction, and Phenotypic Plasticity

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Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
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ISBN 10 : 9782889743551
Pages : 293 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (435 downloads)

Download Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Insect Development, Reproduction, and Phenotypic Plasticity PDF Full Free by Wei Guo and published by Frontiers Media SA. This book was released on 2022-02-10 with total page 293 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:


Download Are data available for tracking progress on nutrition policies, programs, and outcomes in Afghanistan? PDF

Are data available for tracking progress on nutrition policies, programs, and outcomes in Afghanistan?

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Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
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ISBN 10 :
Pages : 50 pages
Rating : 4./5 ( downloads)

Download Are data available for tracking progress on nutrition policies, programs, and outcomes in Afghanistan? PDF Full Free by Jangid, Manita and published by Intl Food Policy Res Inst. This book was released on 2021-07-15 with total page 50 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The World Health Organization (WHO) and other global nutrition and health agencies recommend nutrition actions throughout the life-course to address malnutrition in all its forms. In this report, we examined how Afghanistan’s nutrition policies and programs address recommended nutrition actions, determinants, and outcomes. We reviewed population-based surveys to assess the availability of data on nutrition actions, nutrition outcomes, and the determinants of these outcomes; we also assessed the data availability in administrative data systems for selected nutrition actions and outcomes. Our policy review identified a total of 53 recommended evidence-based nutrition actions; of these, 50 were applicable to Afghanistan, and 44 of those were addressed in nutrition policies and programs. Nutrition actions that were not included in current policies and programs were: food supplementation during adolescence, food supplementation for complementary feeding, and iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation during childhood. Although policies addressed IFA supplementation and deworming during preconception and calcium supplementation during pregnancy, there was currently no program to implement these actions. National strategies and plans recognized and aimed to address all key determinants of nutrition; they also expressed an intent to address all Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) nutrition targets for maternal, infant, and young child nutrition. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), however, did not currently have targets in the national strategies. Of the 44 actions that Afghanistan’s policies and programs address, our data review indicated that population-based surveys contained data on only 22 actions; similarly, out of 17 selected actions we reviewed in the administrative data system, data was available on only ten actions. In population-based surveys, data was not available on indicators related to IFA supplementation and deworming during adolescence, counseling during pregnancy, newborn care, counseling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), or on growth monitoring, identification and management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) during early childhood. In administrative data systems, data was not available on IFA supplementation and counseling during pregnancy, support for early initiation of breastfeeding, multiple micronutrient powder (MNP), or zinc supplementation during early childhood. Most indicators on immediate and underlying determinants were available from population-based surveys; however, none of the population-based surveys contained data on dietary diversity among pregnant women or coverage of households under the social protection schemes. Data on all outcome indicators were available in the population-based surveys. In conclusion, Afghanistan’s policy landscape for nutrition is robust but its consideration of NCDs is limited. The gaps in data availability for tracking progress on nutrition are much greater than the gaps in the policies and programs that are designed to address the recommended actions. Future population-based surveys and other data systems should aim to fill the identified data gaps for nutrition actions.


Download Diagnostic Cytogenetics PDF

Diagnostic Cytogenetics

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Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
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ISBN 10 : 9783642599187
Pages : 460 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (991 downloads)

Download Diagnostic Cytogenetics PDF Full Free by Rolf-Dieter Wegner and published by Springer Science & Business Media. This book was released on 2013-11-11 with total page 460 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Following a section on tissue culture, chromosome staining and basic information about karyotyping, this text presents nomenclature and quality standards, as well as protocols of relevance to comprehensive cytogenetic diagnostics.


Download Planet Saturn Secrets PDF

Planet Saturn Secrets

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Publisher : Saket Shah
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ISBN 10 :
Pages : 166 pages
Rating : 4./5 ( downloads)

Download Planet Saturn Secrets PDF Full Free by Saket Shah and published by Saket Shah. This book was released on 2020-01-05 with total page 166 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Saturn is the most feared planet of all, and for more reasons than one. It is not there in the cosmos to make everything cakewalk for you. It is there giving us hardships, teaching us lessons of life. But this is not to make us destructive and contemptuous, as is the case with Mars negative influence. It is there to make us better individuals, filtering the negative forces to leave us with refined personalities, ready to drive towards spirituality and higher learning. It wants us to be disciplined, thus poses retractions and limitations. Having Saturn’s influence doesn’t always means denial of success. It simply means delay. In some cases however, it also denies the native success if positioned in or aspected by enemy sign, or is debilitated. It makes sure to play the role of a teacher in our lives. Its positive influence brings us the old age wisdom, a sense of conventionality, determination, authority, and a lot more. Below is a detailed overview of this ringed planet to further assist you in having a better understanding,


Download The Lie Detectors PDF

The Lie Detectors

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Publisher : Simon and Schuster
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ISBN 10 : 9780743293860
Pages : 288 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (938 downloads)

Download The Lie Detectors PDF Full Free by Ken Alder and published by Simon and Schuster. This book was released on 2007-03-06 with total page 288 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The story of the lie detector takes us straight into the dark recesses of the American soul. It also leads us on a noir journey through some of the most storied episodes in American history. That is because the device we take for granted as an indicator of guilt or innocence actually tells us more about our beliefs than about our deeds. The machine does not measure deception so much as feelings of guilt or shame. As Ken Alder reveals in his fascinating and disturbing account, the history of the lie detector exposes fundamental truths about our culture: why we long to know the secret thoughts of our fellow citizens; why we believe in popular science; and why America embraced the culture of "truthiness." For centuries, people searched in vain for a way to unmask liars, seeking clues in blushing cheeks, shifty eyes, and curling toes...all the body's outward signs. But not until the 1920s did a cop with a Ph.D. team up with an entrepreneurial high school student from Berkeley, California and claim to have invented a foolproof machine that peered directly into the human heart. In a few short years their polygraph had transformed police work, seized headlines, solved sensational murders, and enthralled the nation. In Chicago, the capital of American vice, the two men wielded their device to clean up corruption, reform the police, and probe the minds of infamous killers. Before long the lie detector had become the nation's "mechanical conscience," searching for honesty on Main Street, in Hollywood, and even within Washington, D.C. Husbands and wives tested each other's fidelity. Corporations tested their employees' honesty. Movie studios and advertisers tested their audiences' responses. Eventually, thousands of government employees were tested for their loyalty and "morals" -- for lack of which many lost their jobs. Yet the machine was flawed. It often was used to accuse the wrong person. It could easily be beaten by those who knew how. Repeatedly it has been applied as an instrument of psychological torture, with the goal of extracting confessions. And its creators paid a commensurate price. One went mad trying to destroy the Frankenstein's monster he had created. The other became consumed by mistrust: jealous of his cheating wife, contemptuous of his former mentor, and driven to an early death. The only happy man among the machine's champions was the eccentric psychologist who went on to achieve glory as the creator of Wonder Woman. Yet this deceptive device took America -- and only America -- by storm. Today, the CIA still administers polygraphs to its employees. Accused celebrities loudly trumpet its clean bill of truth. And the U.S. government, as part of its new "war on terror," is currently exploring forms of lie detection that reach directly into the brain. Apparently, America still dreams of a technology that will render human beings transparent. The Lie Detectors is the entertaining and thought-provoking story of that American obsession.


Download Issues in Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2013 Edition PDF

Issues in Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2013 Edition

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Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
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ISBN 10 : 9781490108162
Pages : 445 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (81 downloads)

Download Issues in Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2013 Edition PDF Full Free by and published by ScholarlyEditions. This book was released on 2013-05-01 with total page 445 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Issues in Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Social Work. The editors have built Issues in Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Social Work in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.


Download Pets as Sentinels, Forecasters and Promoters of Human Health PDF

Pets as Sentinels, Forecasters and Promoters of Human Health

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Publisher : Springer Nature
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ISBN 10 : 9783030307349
Pages : 375 pages
Rating : 4.7/5 (73 downloads)

Download Pets as Sentinels, Forecasters and Promoters of Human Health PDF Full Free by M. Ramiro Pastorinho and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2019-11-30 with total page 375 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge and research concerning domestic pets as sentinels, forecasters and promoters of human health. Written by leading specialists in the fields of medicine, veterinary, environment, analytical chemistry, sociology and behavioral science, this volume provides a comprehensive understanding of the capabilities of pets in what regards to human health. The first seven chapters are devoted to the use of pets as sentinels for their human companions, in terms of exposure to different classes of environmental chemicals. The following five chapters address the use of pets as models for human diseases and promoters of human health. The final two chapters highlight the psycho-social and psychophysiological aspects of human-animal interactions. The book offers an integrated approach to the One Health concept, providing, in a truly holistic manner, tools to assess the equilibrium between the environment, men and animals. This exercise will highlight and reshape our position towards the planet that despite being “a microscopic dot on a microscopic dot lost in the unimaginable infinity of the Universe” is still our own. At the end of the day, pets will always be there to help us.


Download Evaluation of World Bank Programs in Afghanistan 2002-11 PDF

Evaluation of World Bank Programs in Afghanistan 2002-11

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Publisher : World Bank Publications
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ISBN 10 : 9780821398739
Pages : 288 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (987 downloads)

Download Evaluation of World Bank Programs in Afghanistan 2002-11 PDF Full Free by The World Bank and published by World Bank Publications. This book was released on 2013-08-23 with total page 288 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This report evaluates the outcomes of World Bank Group support to Afghanistan from 2002-11. Despite extremely difficult security conditions, which deteriorated markedly after 2006, the World Bank Group has commendably established and sustained a large program of support to the country. The key messages of the evaluation are: • While World Bank Group strategy has been highly relevant to Afghanistan’s situation, beginning in 2006 the strategies could have gone further in adapting ongoing programs to evolving opportunities and needs, and in programming activities sufficient to achieve the objectives of the pillars in those strategies. • Overall, Bank Group assistance has achieved substantial progress toward most of its major objectives, although risks to development outcomes remain high. Impressive results have been achieved in public financial management, public health, telecommunications, and community development; substantial outputs have also been achieved in primary education, rural roads, irrigation, and microfinance—all started during the initial phase. Bank assistance has been critical in developing the mining sector as a potential engine of growth. However, progress has been limited in civil service reform, agriculture, urban development, and private sector development. • The Bank Group’s direct financial assistance has been augmented effectively by analytic and advisory activities and donor coordination through the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund. Knowledge services have been an important part of Bank Group support and have demonstrated the value of strategic analytical work, even in areas where the Bank Group may opt out of direct project financing. • With the expected reduction of the international presence in 2014, sustainability of development gains remains a major risk because of capacity constraints and inadequate human resources planning on the civilian side. To enhance program effectiveness, the evaluation recommends that the Bank Group help the government develop a comprehensive, long-term human resources strategy for the civilian sectors; focus on strategic analytical work in sectors that are high priorities for the government; assist in the development of local government institutions and, in the interim, support the development of a viable system for service delivery at subnational levels; assist in transforming the National Solidarity Program into a more sustainable financial and institutional model to consolidate its gains; help strengthen the regulatory environment for private sector investment; and scale up IFC and MIGA support to the private sector. Chapter Abstracts Chapter 1 This chapter examines the country context, including continuing conflict and insecurity, poverty, and the role of development partners and non-state actors (civil society and humanitarian organizations) in Afghanistan. It examines coming transitions in security arrangements, including political and economic transitions. It outlines the evaluation methods used, as well as limitations. Chapter 2 This chapter deals with the World Bank Group strategy and program, the Bank Group’s operational program, portfolio performance, analytic and advisory activities review, the Afghanistan Reconstruction Fund, and the new Interim Strategy Note, as well as previous Transitional Support Strategies and ISNs. Chapter 3 This chapter examines the building of state capacity and state accountability to its citizens, specifically issues such as results and shortcomings in public financial management, public sector governance, and health and education. The World Bank Group contribution is highlighted. Risks to development outcomes are discussed. Chapter 4 This chapter examines the issue of promoting growth in the rural economy and improving rural livelihoods, including sectors such as rural roads, agriculture and water. The National Solidarity Program and the Bank Group’s contribution to it are discussed. Risks to development outcomes are noted. Chapter 5 This chapter concerns support for the formal private sector, examining the overall investment climate and financial sector. It looks at possibilities for growth in the mining and hydrocarbons sector, information and communications technology, and power sectors. Urban development is also examined. The World Bank Group contribution is highlighted. Chapter 6 This chapter provides an overall assessment (relevance, efficacy) of the Bank Group’s program in Afghanistan, outlining the internal and external drivers of success (knowledge services, staff capacity, customization of program design to country context, alignment of donor objectives, etc) and weakness. Chapter 7 This chapter outlines the lessons for fragile and conflict-affected situations drawing on the specifics of the Afghanistan evaluation case. Recommendations are offered in areas such as labor markets, human resources, strategic-level analytical work vis-a-vis long-term development strategies, and strengthening of the regulatory environment for private sector investment.


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